UL 217
Standard for Smoke Alarms

DETAILS
Edition Number:8SCC Approved:--
Edition Date:2015-10-30DOD Approved: --
Price Code:CANSI Approved: 2016-11-23
Type:ulstd

  • SCOPE

    1 Scope

    1.1 These requirements cover electrically operated single and multiple station smoke alarms intended for open area protection in indoor locations and portable smoke alarms used as "travel" alarms in accordance with:

    a)     National Fire Alarm and Signaling Code, NFPA 72;

    b)     Standard for Recreational Vehicles, NFPA 501C, for smoke alarms intended for use in recreational vehicles;

    c)    For smoke alarms intended for use in recreational boats:

    1)     Fire Protection Standard for Pleasure and Commercial Motor Craft, NFPA 302,

    2)     AC and DC Electrical Systems on Boats, ABYC E-11, and

    3)    The applicable regulations of the United States Coast Guard.

    1.2 A single station smoke alarm (e.g. ionization-type, photoelectric-type, smoke alarm with supplementary heat detection type, combination smoke type, multi-criteria type), as defined by these requirements, is a self-contained fire alarm device that consists of an assembly of electrical components including a smoke sensor/ chamber, alarm sounding appliance, and provision for connection to a power supply source, either by splice leads, terminals, a cord and plug arrangement or containing integral batteries to detect one or more products of combustion. The products of combustion may consist of visible as well as invisible smoke particles, gases, heat, radiant energy, and water vapor. Additional functionality such as, a supplemental heat detector, terminals for connection to a remote audible signaling appliance (device) or accessory, and an integral transmitter to energize a remote audible signaling appliance (device) is permitted to be incorporated as part of the smoke alarm assembly.

    1.3 Smoke-alarms not intended for interconnection are defined as single-station type.

    1.4 Multiple station units are single station smoke alarms that are:

    a)    Interconnected so that actuation of one results in alarm sounding by all interconnected smoke alarms, or

    b)    Smoke alarms that are connected to remote heat detectors or heat alarms (thermostats).

    1.5 These requirements, where applicable, also cover all remote accessories that are to be connected.

    1.6 This standard does not cover the following:

    a)    Smoke detectors of the non-self-contained type that are intended for connection to a household or industrial system control unit. These are included in the Standard for Smoke Detectors for Fire Protective Signaling Systems, UL 268;

    b)    Mechanically operated single and multiple station fire alarm devices that are specified in the Standard for Single and Multiple Station Heat Alarms, UL 539;

    c)    Heat detectors – except for the requirements in the Fire Test (smoke alarm with heat detection) – Section 71) incorporated as part of a single station smoke alarm assembly whose requirements are covered in the Standard for Heat Detectors for Fire Alarm Signaling Systems, UL 521 and/or when part of a multi-criteria smoke alarm.

    d)    An accessory that is provided with a means to transmit alarm signals to a constantly attended, remote monitoring location. Any accessory capable of transmitting these types of signals is covered by the requirements in the Standard for Household Fire-Warning Sytem Units, UL 985;

    e)    A gas and vapor detector or sensor incorporated as a part of a smoke alarm assembly and covered by the Standard for Single and Multiple Station Carbon Monoxide Alarms, UL 2034, except when part of a multi-criteria smoke alarm.

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS
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    • Cover
    • Transmittal
    • Table of Contents
      • Body
        • INTRODUCTION
          • 1 Scope
          • 2 Assembly
          • 3 Components
          • 4 Units of Measurement
          • 5 Undated References
          • 6 Glossary
          • 7 Smoke Alarm Reliability Prediction
          • 8 Installation and Operating Instructions
          • 9 Automatic Drift Compensation for Smoke Sensing
          • 10 Nonfire Feature
          • 11 Smoke Sensitivity Indicating Means (optional)
          • 12 Maintenance (Field Cleaning)
          • 13 Alarm Silencing Feature
          • 14 Smoke Sensitivity Test Feature
          • 15 Batteries
            • 15.1 General
            • 15.2 Battery removal indicator
          • 16 Firmware Update (if provided)
            • 16.1 General
            • 16.2 Firmware update
        • CONSTRUCTION
          • ASSEMBLY
          • 17 General
            • 17.1 Remote accessories
            • 17.2 Smoke sensitivity adjustment (single criteria)
            • 17.3 Radioactive materials
            • 17.4 Supplementary signaling feature
            • 17.5 Insect guards
            • 17.6 Supplementary heat sensor
          • 18 Servicing and Maintenance Protection
            • 18.1 General
            • 18.2 Sharp edges
          • 19 Enclosure
            • 19.1 General
            • 19.2 Cast metal enclosures
            • 19.3 Sheet metal enclosures
            • 19.4 Nonmetallic enclosures
            • 19.5 Ventilating openings
            • 19.6 Covers
            • 19.7 Glass panels
          • 20 Corrosion Protection
          • 21 Field Wiring Connections
            • 21.1 Permanent connection
            • 21.2 Field wiring compartment
            • 21.3 Field wiring terminals (general)
            • 21.4 Special field-wiring terminals (qualified application)
            • 21.5 Field wiring leads
            • 21.6 Grounding terminals and leads
            • 21.7 Power supply cord
          • 22 Remote Power Supply
          • 23 Internal Wiring
            • 23.1 General
            • 23.2 Wireways
            • 23.3 Splices
            • 23.4 Barriers
            • 23.5 Strain relief
          • 24 Bonding for Grounding
          • COMPONENTS
          • 25 General
            • 25.1 Mounting of components
            • 25.2 Operating components
            • 25.3 Current-carrying parts
          • 26 Bushings
          • 27 Electrical Insulating Material
          • 28 Lampholders and Lamps
          • 29 Photocell Illuminating Lamps and Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs)
            • 29.1 Quality assurance program
          • 30 Protective Devices
          • 31 Printed Wiring Boards
          • 32 Switches
          • 33 Transformers and Coils
          • 34 Dropping Resistors
          • 35 Power Supplies
            • 35.1 Primary power supply
            • 35.2 Secondary power supply
          • 36 Spacings
        • PERFORMANCE
          • 37 General
            • 37.1 Test units
            • 37.2 Performance of single sensor components of multi-criteria smoke alarms
            • 37.3 Test voltages
            • 37.4 Test samples and data
            • 37.5 Component reliability data
            • 37.6 Accessories
            • 37.7 Smoke alarm guards
            • 37.8 Test conditions
            • 37.9 Tests and analysis
          • 38 Normal Operation Test
            • 38.1 General
            • 38.2 Standardized alarm signal
            • 38.3 Sensitivity shift criteria
          • 39 Automatic Drift Compensation for Smoke Sensing
          • 40 Alarm Silenced Test
          • 41 Electrical Supervision Test
            • 41.1 General
            • 41.2 Component failure
            • 41.3 Photocell illuminating lamps and light emitting diodes (LEDs)
            • 41.4 AC or remotely powered units
            • 41.5 Battery powered (primary or secondary) smoke alarms
            • 41.6 External wiring
            • 41.7 Smoke chamber monitoring
            • 41.8 End-of-life signal
            • 41.9 Multi-criteria smoke alarm with gas sensor
          • 42 Sensitivity Test
            • 42.1 Smoke sensor (general)
            • 42.2 Combustibles
            • 42.3 Aerosol generation equipment (alternate method)
            • 42.4 Test equipment
            • 42.5 Test method
            • 42.6 Uniformity of operation
            • 42.7 Smoke sensitivity test feature
            • 42.8 Sensitivity test – gas sensor of a multi-criteria smoke alarm
          • 43 Directionality Test
          • 44 Velocity-Sensitivity Test
            • 44.1 Smoke sensor
            • 44.2 Multi-criteria smoke alarm with gas sensor
          • 45 Smoke Entry (Stack Effect) Test
          • 46 Lamp Interchangeability Test (Photoelectric)
          • 47 Reduction in Light Output Test
          • 48 Stability Test
          • 49 Stability Tests – Multi-Criteria Smoke Alarms Incorporating Gas Sensor(s)
          • 50 Stability Tests for Multi-Criteria Smoke Alarms Incorporating CO Gas Sensor(s)
          • 51 Fire Tests
            • 51.1 General
            • 51.2 Paper fire
            • 51.3 Wood fire
            • 51.4 Flaming polyurethane foam test
            • 51.5 Test method
          • 52 Smoldering Smoke Test
          • 53 Smoldering Polyurethane Foam Test
            • 53.1 Combustible
            • 53.2 Test procedure
            • 53.3 Test validity criteria (smoke profile)
            • 53.4 Acceptance criteria
          • 54 Cooking Nuisance Smoke Test
            • 54.1 Acceptance criteria
            • 54.2 Electric range
            • 54.3 Hamburger mixture and freezing
            • 54.4 Test procedure
          • 55 Selectivity Test – Multicriteria Smoke Alarms Incorporating Gas Sensor(s)
          • 56 Circuit Measurement Test
            • 56.1 General
            • 56.2 Battery trouble voltage determination
          • 57 Overvoltage and Undervoltage Tests
            • 57.1 Overvoltage test
            • 57.2 Undervoltage test
          • 58 Temperature Test
          • 59 Vibration Test
          • 60 Replacement Test, Head and Covers
          • 61 Jarring Test
          • 62 Variable Ambient Temperature Tests
            • 62.1 Operation in high and low ambients
            • 62.2 Effect of shipping and storage – (single and multi-criteria smoke alarms)
            • 62.3 Effect of shipping and storage – multi-criteria smoke alarms incorporating gas sensor(s)
          • 63 Humidity Test
            • 63.1 High humidity
            • 63.2 Low humidity [multi-criteria smoke alarms with gas sensor(s)]
          • 64 Corrosion Test
          • 65 Alternate Corrosion Test (21-Day)
          • 66 Transient Tests
            • 66.1 General
            • 66.2 Internally induced transients
            • 66.3 Extraneous transients
            • 66.4 Surge immunity test (combination wave)
            • 66.5 Surge current test
            • 66.6 Supply line (ring wave surge voltage) transients
            • 66.7 Supply line (extra-low-voltage circuit) transients
          • 67 Static Discharge Test
          • 68 Dust Test
          • 69 Overload Tests
            • 69.1 Smoke alarm
            • 69.2 Separately energized circuits
          • 70 Endurance Test
            • 70.1 Smoke alarm
            • 70.2 Separately energized circuits
            • 70.3 Audible signaling appliance
            • 70.4 Test means
          • 71 Fire Test – Smoke Alarm with Heat Detection
          • 72 Fire Test – Smoke Alarm with Supplementary Heat Detection
          • 73 Leakage Current Test
          • 74 Abnormal Operation Test
          • 75 Electric Shock Current Test
          • 76 Locked Rotor Test
            • 76.1 Motors
            • 76.2 Thermal or overcurrent protection
            • 76.3 Impedance protection
          • 77 Dielectric Voltage-Withstand Test
          • 78 Polarity Reversal Test
          • 79 Tests on Polymeric Materials
            • 79.1 General
            • 79.2 Temperature test
            • 79.3 Flame test – 3/4-in. (19 mm)
            • 79.4 Flame test – 5-in. (127 mm)
          • 80 Strain Relief Test
            • 80.1 General
            • 80.2 Power-supply cord
            • 80.3 Strain relief (special field-wiring terminals)
            • 80.4 Battery connections
          • 81 Non-Compulsory Fire and Smoldering Smoke Tests
          • 82 Survivability Tests
          • 83 Drop Test
          • 84 Audibility Test
            • 84.1 General
            • 84.2 Sound output measurement
            • 84.3 Alarm duration test
            • 84.4 Supplementary remote sounding appliances
            • 84.5 Low frequency alarm signal format
          • 85 Field Service Tests (If recommended by the manufacturer)
            • 85.1 Go/no-go field test
            • 85.2 Maintenance (cleaning)
            • 85.3 Battery tests
          • 86 Conformal Coatings on Printed Wiring Boards
            • 86.1 General
            • 86.2 Low voltage printed wiring boards
            • 86.3 High voltage printed wiring boards
          • 87 Power Supply Tests
            • 87.1 General
            • 87.2 VA Capacity
            • 87.3 Burnout test
          • 88 Smoke Alarms for Use in Recreational Vehicles (RV)
            • 88.1 General
            • 88.2 Marking
            • 88.3 Variable ambient temperature and humidity test
            • 88.4 Corrosion (Salt spray) test
            • 88.5 Vibration test
            • 88.6 Contamination test (Cooking by-products)
          • 89 Smoke Alarms for Use on Recreational Boats
            • 89.1 General
            • 89.2 Operational tests following conditioning
            • 89.3 Watertightness Test
            • 89.4 Salt-spray Corrosion Test
            • 89.5 Marking
            • 89.6 Operating and installation instructions
        • MANUFACTURING AND PRODUCTION
          • 90 General
          • 91 Sensitivity Calibration Tests
          • 92 Smoke Tests
          • 93 Photocell Illuminating Lamp Test
          • 94 Measurement of In-Service Reliability for Multi-criteria Smoke Alarms with Gas Sensor(s)
            • 94.1 Required in-service reliability
            • 94.2 Sample frequency and sample size
            • 94.3 Test results and record keeping
          • 95 Production Line Dielectric Voltage-Withstand Tests
          • 96 Production Line Grounding Continuity Tests
          • 97 Battery Quality Assurance
          • 98 Smoke Alarm Shipment
        • MARKING
          • 99 General
          • 100 Packaging Marking
        • INSTRUCTIONS
          • 101 General
          • 102 Installation Instructions – Wiring Diagram
            • 102.1 All smoke alarms
            • 102.2 Four-wire detectors
            • 102.3 Two-wire detectors
    • APPENDIX A
    • APPENDIX B – TYPICAL SENSITIVITY SMOKE TEST CHAMBER CONSTRUCTION
    • APPENDIX C – OBSCURATION CALCULATIONS
    • APPENDIX D – RELIABILITY PREDICTION AND CRITERIA FOR ACCEPTANCE
    • APPENDIX E – Sample Size Determination for In Service Reliability Testing of Multicriteria Smoke Alarms Consisting of Gas Detection